For the Berlin Huon d'Auvergne, punctuation and citations are according to the general norms outlined in the overall document.
However, the Berlin Huon d'Auvergne is very close to Old French. For that reason we keep close to the most respected norms for Old French editions. There are situations in which Old French norms do not work with the Franco-Italian text, so these are made explicit in the following list.
Capitalization is as in French: of nouns, not adjectives for origins; thus, le g[ra]nt Françoi (v. 9042), but la françoise gient (v. 11494). We capitalize names of places, names of people, but not titles unless part of a place name (e.g., saint Laçaron, v. 2232, but Saint Pol, v. 7953). Names of God and Mary are capitalized, as are the pronominalized attributes used for them (Diex; Marie; Verge; Crucifis; etc.), but not pronouns refering to them.
"v." designates a line number in order to avoid confusion with the number one that use of the English "l." could create (it looks too much like the number one), and "vv." stands for "lines."
Periods appear at the end of most lines as well as before and after some names, rather inconsistently (e.g., Uliens., v. 10093; rois .agollāt., v. 10092). Similarly, numbers, here always Roman numerals (not Arabic), appear relatively consistently with periods around them:
(v. 10238). These we have conventionalized through the text.
In the initial folios, there is a slash between the two hemistichs of each line (v. 338):
Consecutive usage of this slash stops at the end of 18Rb; 47Rb also contains lines with the divider as do occasional lines throughout the manuscript, with no evident plan (47Rb; 53Va; 62V- 63R; 72Ra; 73Vb; 84V).
There is usually a dot at the end of each line in the MS.
[...] represents missing text in the MS; there are incomplete lines and missing lines between completed lines.
< > are used for interpolations, either our additions, suggestions from other editors, or information gleaned from other sources. These are all annotated.
We use conventional modern punctuation: commas, colons, semicolons, etc., with the addition of the raised dot (∙). This is used in two cases:
More to come in this section.
Berlin uses both a wide variety and frequent abbreviations, in comparison with, for example, the Roland V4 (Beretta xxiii-xxvii) or Aliscans (Holtus xxiii-xxiv). The frequency may be partially due to a difference in text length, but is also in general usage, with the result that the number of abbreviations in B's version of Huon is very large.
We follow the most frequent fully-expanded form found in the text where possible; where there is none (e.g. parjurer and its forms) we follow either the rhyme, if the word in question is in rhyme position; or the authoritative dictionary in the field if not it is not (Tobler-Lommatzsch [TL] for Old French; the Tesoro della lingua italiana delle origini [TLIO] for Italian or Dizionario etimologico italiano [DELI], where the example is before or contemporary with our text, 1341; the Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis [DuCange] for Latin). The asterisk (*) stands for "in rhyme position." There are a total of 12,317 expanded abbreviations in the text, and ten hiatuses where text is missing.
Wherever the abbreviation creates a double letter, the abbreviation is written first.
We give examples of appearances of the resolution with the line number of its appearance, and where there is a possible issue, we give the full form for comparison. Italics in the edition itself are used for the expansions of abbreviations; here, italics with square brackets [ ] represent the expanded word from the text with the expansion in the brackets. For the MS form, we attempt to reproduce typographically the actual appearance where possible, and otherwise provide a copy of an actual appearance from the MS. Since the transcription is available to all, we do not give specific line numbers unless necessary.
|[ab]||h'itason: h[ab]itason (habitason, v. 6601)|
|[am], [ame]||Guill'e: Guill[am]e (5 appearances); Guill': Guill[ame] (2 appearances); Guilla'me: Guilla[u]me (2 appearances). Based on: Guillame (v. 9086, 9092); Guielme (v. 9805). See also .W. below.|
|[an]||roll't: Roll[an]t (one appearance each Rolland and Rolla[n]t*)|
|[ar]||K'lle: K[ar]le (24 appearances); Ka'lle: Ka[r]le (9 appearances); K[ar]lles (2 appearances); Ka[r]lles (1 appearance); Ka[r]lle[s] (1 appearance); K[ar]llon (19 appearances, 11 in rhyme position); K[ar]llon (3, in rhyme position); K[ar]ll[e] (1 appearance); K[arlle] (1 appearance). Based on: Karlle (5); Karllon (2, 1 in rhyme position).|
|[e], [es]||d': d[e], d[es] (to agree with following noun form);ierl'm; isrl'm: Jer[usa]l[e]m, J[e](ru)s[a]l[e]m (2appearances of Jerusalem; 3 of Jerusalant*)|
|[er]||B'tagne/B'taigne: B[er]tagne/B[er]taigne; v[er]goigné; Alv[er]naus, Av[er]ne, Auv[er]gne, etc.; av[er]sai[r]e; rev[er]tie; v[er]tu; V[er]ge; crev[er]*; env[er]s|
|[ival]||ch'r: ch[ival]er, ch[ivale]rie (chivaler, 6 appearances; chivalerie, once)|
|[o]||m'lt: m[o]lt, 7 (molt, 8 appearances; molte v. 1308)|
|[u]||sb'tāce: s[u]bsta[n]ce (cf. substa[n]ce v. 9889); sb'teīr: s[u]bste[n]ir; D[omi]n[u]m|
|[us], [s]||brāch': bra[n]ch[us]; iū': ju[s]; vēc': ve[n]c[us]*; pl[us] laudam[us]|
|[et]||1085 appearances (et appearances 613, e 436 appearances in text, with no distinction of position; that is, e appears before vowels and consonants, as does et). Thus we follow the convention of other Franco-Italian editions (Beretta, Holtus, Wunderli) and use [et].|
|[r]||hono[r] (99 appearances), Ka[r]lles (see above, K'lle), aut[r]e (autre(s), 360 appearances)|
|[er]||h[er]nois (hernois, 2 appearances); t[er]min (terme, 2 appearances); habit[er] (habiter, 4 appearances) et[er]ne (eterne, v. 8841); v[er]tu (vertu(s), 7 appearances); s[er]pent (serpent, v. 8673); s[er]ve (33 forms of serv-); v[er]ités; v[er]ser|
|[ir]||v[ir]tus (Latin; DuCange); asp[ir], v. 10762 (cf. aspirt, v. 8063)|
|[ro]||ba[ro]ner (baron-, 86 occurrences)|
|[re]||aut[re]s (360 forms), pe[re]gri[n]e (peregris, v. 9172*)|
|[ré]||ap[ré]s (26 appearances,TL après); p[ré]s (38 appearances, TL près)|
|[ri]||p[ri]me, p[ri]meran and various combinations (48 appearances; cf. primer/e 5/1; primeran/e 8 apperances), prime (1)), pet[ri]ne (2 apperarances, cf. petral, v. 6209; petrine, v. 9627); C[ri]ator (Criator, 15 appearances; Creator, 9 appearances)|
|[ra]||g[ra]nt (grant, 153 appearances)|
|[or]||vanegl[or]ie (vaneglorie, 3 appearances); gl[or]iois (glorios, 3 appearances; gloriois, v. 156)|
|[tr]||m[etr]erent, me[tre]rent (metre, v. 519; metroit 2 appearances, etc.)|
|[con] or [com]||con appears 6 times alone; two of these are for "conte," referring to Huon (v. 641, 3491); one is for the conjunction "comme" (v. 708); the other three are "with" com appears 175 times as an adverb and a conjunction. Therefore the one time that the abbreviation appears alone as a preposition, we expand as [con] (v. 2516) and the one time it appears alone as a conjunction we expand as [com] (v. 2280). When the abbreviation is used within a word, in general we expand [con], e.g., [con]q[ui]st, v. 49, but before vowels and the labials b and p we expand as [com], following the usage of the text; e.g., co[m]bate, v. 1099; [com]peigno[n]s, v. 78 (example, above).|
|D[omi]ne, from Latin, similarly D[omi]n[u]m; cf. v. 6063 with the full form and v. 3318, Domi[n]e|
|[en]||ente[n]dim[en]t, co[n]v[en]t, etc., both in rhyme; Devotem[en]t, not in rhyme.|
|[m]||before labials: e.g., aco[m]plir; fla[m]be, but not across word boundaries: e.g., i[n] parolle, though the MS itself does not follow that rule at times, e.g., Em p[ar]durable (v. 9790). Exception: no[n]portant (cf. v. 6082, where the non seems to be felt still in its complete form).
cu[m], co[m] for adverb or conjunction (MSI come, MSF comme); cum full form, 254 appearances; com full form, 75 appearances; cu[m] 220 appearances, co[m] 2 appearances.
This was a surprising situation: con, for the preposition "with," appears only 3 times. Com also functions as a preposition, so the 56 times cū functions as a preposition, it must be resolved cu[m]; cō, however, can be resolved as co[n] (one time, v. 5804).
|[m]||for Latin finals: s[er]vu[m], v. 6938|
|[n]||no[n], co[n], cu[n] (con, full form for "with," 3 appearances, as preposition—see above); where doubled, the abbreviated [n] or [m] is written first, e.g., enco[m]me[n]ce; in cases where the two different, we follow modern convention: e.g., om[n]ipote[n]t|
|[omi]||d[omi]ne in Latin quotes, e.g., v. 8443|
|[on]||s[on]t, v. 888; n[on] (non, 688 appearances; nen, 15 appearances)|
|[u]||to[u]t (perhaps from copyist error reading 'n'?) v. 1086|
|[st]||ē: e[st] (70 times; cf. Holtus, Aliscans, where this appears 63 times, p. XXIII; e.g., here v. 10305)|
|[est]||pōes: po[est]és (v. 10305)|
|[s]||nō: no[s] (v. 5748)|
|n[ost]re||(6 appearances; 18 nostre, 10 notre, 4 notra when unabbreviated)|
|The abbreviations of p are problematic due to the differences in development of French and Italian area dialects. Two abbreviations are very specific and not problematic, but the p with a cross-stroke over the descender can designate three possible resolutions. In that case, we separate longer words from the abbreviation alone. Most specific words or expressions can follow the most frequent appearances, but the prepositions par, per, por when alone pose a challenge. par appears 206 times; per 53, and por 733. However, they have different meanings, these are not just prepositions. par is also from the verb "to appear," and furthermore functions as an adverbial intensifier. per means "father" (42 times), "jewel" (2 times), "stone" (two times), "peer (of the realm)" (1 time), "equal" (twice) and "Peter" (once), and is the preposition only 11 times. Furthermore, the abbreviation of a letter (i or r) above the letter appears with p.
--When an abbreviation with p appears within a lexical item, it follows the other words of the family where these exist; if not, the listed lemma of TL or DELI (as appropriate to the form).
|[ar]||p[ar]don 3 unabbreviated forms with pardon, none with perdon, so all resolved to p[ar]don; ap[ar]tient (there are no full forms, but 7 abbreviated forms; TL lists apartenir and its forms); p[ar]don (cf. 5801, pardona, et al.); p[ar]fon/de/s/nt/[n]t (TL parfont); p[ar]jur (no full forms; TL lists parjurer and its combinations); p[ar]ler and its forms; p[ar]tir and its forms; p[ar]tenir (see ap[ar]tient); p[ar]ame/t (TL paramer); p[ar] desus (5 appearances); p[ar]durable (TL); p[ar]manable, p[ar]manray (TL parmanable, parmanoir; cf. porman, v. 9455); p[ar]tenant (see apartenir, above); p[ar]venir (cf. parvi[n]t, v. 6007)|
|[er]||p[er]cevoir (no full forms; cf. percepire [DELI 1342], TL apercevoir / apercoivre); p[er]te/ament (apert, 3 appearances); emp[er]er (cf. emperer, v. 4807); p[er]ceüe and related forms (see ap[er]cevoir); p[er]chace[n]t (no full forms; cf. Aquilon de Bavière and use of "per" as intensifier for peramer); p[er]dre and related forms; p[er]dicion (TL perdicïon); p[er]e (cf. per, 38 appearances; pere, 42 appearances "father/s"); p[er]egrin (cf. peregris, v. 9172, pereg(r)[i]nage, v. 7248); p[er]fis (TL perfide); p[er]gamin (there is nothing else like this in the MS -- TL lists parchemin and TLIO pergameno—because of the following voiced consonant I chose this form); p[er]ir, p[er]il and related forms (cf. peril v. 9349; perilos/e vv. 6987, 7278; perir, vv. 1336, 10566); p[er]ine (cf. per, 4 appearances "stone; precious gem"); p[er]on (peron 7 appearances); P[er]se (cf. Pers, v. 4017); p[er]son/e/s (TL persone; DELI persona); p[er]tu/s (TL pertuis, DELI pertugio); sop[er]be (cf. TL superbe, superbie; DELI superbo, superbia); sop[er]chier, sop[er]cler, sup[er]chier (DELI soverchiare, soperchiare av 1292); sp[er]ance (cf. esperance v. 1233; esperance/se; sperance 2 appearances); sp[er]du (cf. p[er]dre and related forms); sp[er]on (cf. esperon (TL superne; DELI superno [Dante]); temp[er]ance (temperance, v. 1772)|
|[or]||nonp[or]tant (cf. v. 6082, portant, 3 appearances); p[or]segui, p[or]sevrant (TL porsivre, porsivir; nothing similar); p[or]longais (TL porloignier; DELI prolungare; I have used the OF prefix here because of the vowel, though the u of the DELI form is anaphonesis typical of the Tuscan area); p[or]mi (10 appearances in the text)|
|[ro]||p[ro]don/[n] (prodom, 8 appearances; prodom/e, 12 appearances; prodon, 21 appearances); p[ro]met, etc. (cf. promis, prometoit, etc.); p[or]veüs (TL porvëoir): only 8 forms in the entire MS. Note that "p[ar]fon" forms are clearly –ar- because of the abbreviation form (12 appearances), in the absence of any fully expanded forms.|
|[re]||prendre and its forms with prefixes: ap[re]ndre; emp[re]ndre; mesp[re]ndoit; porp[re]nent; po[r]p[re]ndro[n]s; p[re]nant; rep[re]nt, sorp[re]ndre (TL prendre; DELI prendere); ap[re]sente (present, 20 appearances); ap[re]ste and forms (cf. apreste/té/teç, 5 forms); asp[re]ment (cf. aspre v. 10073, Aspremo[n]t v. 10094); p[re]cios (TL precïos; DELI prezioso); p[re]dica[n]se (TL predicance; DELI predicazione); p[re]ga and its forms (DELI pregare); p[re]se/ssant, p[re]senter and its forms (TL present, presenter; DELI presente, presentare); p[re]sie (TL presse; DELI pressa, Dante); p[re]ste (prest/eés 12 appearances as noun); p[re]voir/e, p[re]vonde* (prevoir 3 appearances); rep[re]sion (TL represser; DELI repressione/reprimere); rep[re]sent (TL representer); semp[re] (TL sempre(s); DELI sempre)|
|[ri]||past participle and perfect forms from prendre: ap[ri]s, desp[ri]st, emp[ri]se entrep[ri]s, porp[ri]s, p[ri]st, pristrent, sorp[ri]st (prist 50 appearances); mesp[ri]son (mesprison 8 appearances); p[ri]ma and its various derivatives, p[ri]mer, p[ri]mera/in, etc. (prime/r etc. 8 appearances); p[ri]nce, p[ri]ncer (TL prince, princeps; DELI principe); p[ri]nceps (princeps v. 12076); p[ri]ser and its forms: prissa, p[ri]sse* [=prix] (prise 2 appearances [< priser]; TL prise); p[ri]son/s (prison/s 10 appearances; some are nouns, some forms of pris(i)er); p[ri]vés (privé* v. 376)|
3633 p[ri]son (8 other appearances of prison in full and 6 other abbreviated forms, but here p with cross stroke on descender)
4285 p[or] voire (p with both cross stroke and dot above)
7275 sorp[ra]gne an unidentifiable abbreviation, seems to be two dots, above; so this should be [re] or [ri], but rigorous sight rhyme imposes –agne
8624 p[ri]sse* but dot above, not an apostrophe (vowel dictated by rhyme)
Where p with the abbreviation of a slash on the descender appears alone without other indications the resolution is decided as follows:
The abbreviations of q are also problematic. There are again three possible abbreviations: q with a letter (like an i) above; q with the titulus above; and q with a cross-stroke on the descender. q with a cross-stroke appears 28 times and resolved q[ui], as demonstrated by other full forms in the text: [con]q[ui]st, [con]q[ui]s, q[ui]e[r]t (2 appearances), sorq[ui]die, q[ui]er, q[ui] (8 appearances), plaq[ui]ment (2 appearances), req[ui]e[r], delinq[ui]re, req[ui]s, q[ui]d, req[ui]rois, q[ui]er, [con]q[ui]sons, tranq[ui]limant, req[ui]e[r], nasq[ui], q[ui]sm req[ui]er. References to TL or DELI or both clarify specific uses within words or expressions.
However, since the palatalization in the two language areas proceeded differently, qu- represents a variety of different phonemes and no standard existed at the time. Is it the same as q- alone? Thus in some cases we must decide how to establish use: within an individual lexical family? within a certain part of speech (e.g., demonstratives)? should we create a regularity when none existed at the time or in the text? For example, final –que alternates with –qe, –c and –che. I have chosen for now to standardize in –qu- in part because it makes reading easier, and follows modern French usage in spelling with q-. Then the question of the final vowel: -e or –i? Each has a specific meaning in the modern languages. In the original text, there are 89 forms q alone; 494 of qe; 137 of qi; 472 of qu; 1089 of que; 687 of qui (though there are also some questions of word division involved for conjunctions; more about this below). The more frequent form by far is therefore que, but that might be expected as being the object case (for which there are many more possibilities than the subject case: direct object, object of preposition, etc.) and an interrogative form. Because of the difficulty of metrics in a Franco-Italian text, I have not in general elided u before vowels, with the exceptions noted below.
The second (q with a slash on the descender) appears 28 times and is always resolved q[ui], as attested by other forms of the same words in complete form for the most part, with 8 of those qui alone. The first (q with i above the line) appears 17 times and is resolved in q[ui] when subject. q[ui] alone can represent relative pronouns as subject ("who"); demonstrative pronouns (since qui also stands for the palatalized Modern Italian quelli, MSF ceux); the interrogative for a person; and the proverbial pronoun "he/she who." Other abbreviated forms—relative pronoun direct object, the conjunction, an interrogative for a thing or fact—are resolved q[ue]. Where the u is already present and the q bears an abbreviation, the final vowel follows the same rule. This means that 523 q with a dot or similar designation above were expanded as q[ue] in addition to those surmounted by an i. In Old French itself usage was not regular; Ménard notes that dialectal usage varied and is explicable.
|[u]||acq[u]isons (aquis 3 appearances); q[u]e (que 1089 appearances); q[u]erant (querent 2 appearances); q[u]i (qui 687 appearances)|
|[u']||Where the q surmounted by an i precedes a word beginning with an i (vv. 501, 507) and jusq[u']a (v. 4613)|
|[ue]||adon/[n]q[ue] (9 from crossed q, see also ӡ below; adonque 5 appearances); auq[ue]s (6 from crossed q, see also ӡ below; auque/s 10 appearances); aveq[ue]/cq[ue] (21 with crossed q, see also ӡ below; avec 1 appearance; avech 39 appearances; aveque 1 appearance); donq[ue] (6 from crossed q, see also ӡ below; donque 10 appearances); enfraciq[ue], fraciq[ue] (one with crossed q, and both with crossed q, respectively; see also ӡ below; enfracique, fracique 1 appearance each); enq[ue]ste (enqueste 6 appearances); finq[ue] (finqe v. 1947); ilueq[ue] (iluec, iluech, iloc, iloch 1 appearance each); onq[ue]/s (1/10 appearances, respectively; onque/s 23 appearances); oq[ue]ison/s (7 appearances; oqueison/nt/ns 5 appearances, also oqeison 3 appearances); orq[ue]nois (1 appearance; orquenoy* v. 1239); plaq[ue] (v. 7966; cf. Geste Francor, v. 3167 plaqe, 3rd person; cf. Latin PLACERE; DELI piacere), q[ue]l/le (quel, quele, quela, quelle 41, 2, 1, 3 appearances); q[ue]ran/[n]t, q[ue]re, q[ue]ste and other forms of that verb and related nouns (quera, querant, quera, etc.); q[ue]relle (querelle 5 appearances); req[ue]rie and other forms of the verb requerir (requeri, requert, requerir, etc.)|
|[ui]||for q with a slash on the descender. conq[ui]sons (cf. conquis, conquist 4, 2 appearances); delinq[ui]re (v. 3026); nasq[ui] (nasqui, 3 appearances); plaq[ui]ment (plaquiment/[n]t 4 appearances); q[ui]d in Latin quote (see Lewis & Short quis, quid); q[ui]ert (quiert 10 appearances); q[ui]s (quis 4 appearances); req[ui]e[r] (requier 20 appearances); sorq[ui]die (TL sorquidier/sorcuidier); tra[n]q[ui]lima[n]t (TL tranquilité; DELI tranquillo)|
|q[ua]nt is expanded from qnt with the two dots over the n 13 times (2263, 4718, 4721, 4729, 4764, 4770, 4790, 4806, 4809, 4895, 4931, 7999, 8119). It is interesting that a group of these are all in the same section of the MS., the Ynide episode (132 quant; 391 qua[n]t)|
|s[ain]c[t]e (11 appearances; e.g., v. 1557, above); cf. saint (12 appearances), sainte (1 appearance)|
|s[er]gians/t; s[er]mon and forms of the verb and nouns related to it; s[er]pant, s[er]pent; s[er]ve and forms of the verb and nouns related to it|
|v[est]re, 56 appearances: vetre 37, vestre 32, vostre 6, that is 37 without –s- and 38 with –s-, and 69 with –e- vs. 6 with –o-. Since the form is very close and similar to notre/nostre, we follow the usage there, expanding with the –es-.|
|no complete forms. W[illame], 33 appearances; W'll'ame: W[i]ll[a]me (6 appearances, vv. 9171, 9325, 9700, 9750, 10139, 10160); Wi'ame: Wi[ll]ame (once v. 7945); W'll'e: W[i]ll[am]e (once, v. 9332); Will'me: Will[a]me (once v. 9155); W'lla'me: W[i]lla[u]me (once, v. 11547). See Guill'e, above.|
|[Crist] Crist appears 5 times unabbreviated.|
|followed by a: [cristi]: [cristi]an, [cristi]anté. Cristian(s) appears unabbreviated 5 times, cristianteç once.||followed by i: [crist]: [crist]ians 4 times, [crist]iane 2 times||followed by n: [criste]: [criste]nté. In unabbreviated form, we find cristenté(s) 8 times, cristienteç once, cristinité twice.|
While the Conseils counsels that letters written above the line should not be considered restituted, i.e., should not be written as abbreviations (Fasc. 1, p. 31), certain of these are in fact abbreviations; that is, they represent more than one letter. Corrections and insertions are frequently marked by a caret below the line for placement of the insertion above the line or in the margin. The use of above-the-line abbreviations of one letter is frequent in this manuscript, and as such is remarkable and worthy of note. Therefore in the electronic version, these are visible: the letter above the line is in parentheses (as are standard additions above the line) and the expanded letters are in italics as are other abbreviations. In a final view, it will be possible for the reader to see the text without these parentheses. For this reason we have avoided parentheses in our edition so as to facilitate programming the final version.
The combinations in question are:
e above the line, i above the line, o above the line, r above the line
The forms that use them are as follows:
We follow standard practice for separation of words in early texts. The separation of words in the MS is varying and not always logical.